Some people try low-sugar diet and ketogenic diet in order to improve their posture, but the discussion on which method is better has not stopped. Today, we will use research and literature to understand the human body’s mechanism and physiological mechanism, and through the advice of physicians and nutritionists, to understand the general direction of diet visits. Because everyone’s situation is different, there are more conditions to consider when actually using the diet. I hope that through this article, everyone can better understand the operation of the body and take care of health.
What is ketogenic diet, low-carb diet
From the time food is eaten to digestion is the so-called absorption period. The body breaks down nutrients so that the body can easily absorb them through the digestive system. Because the blood is not suitable for accumulating too much glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and other nutrients. Usually the excess is used up or stored in the body.
When we eat sugar foods such as rice, bread, sucrose, the digestive system will absorb it in the form of glucose, and the glucose that enters the blood is blood sugar. These glucoses are synthesized into glycogen in the liver and muscles, and also become energy for the body, or synthesized into adipose tissue in fat cells. If you eat fructose or lactose, most of them will be metabolized in the liver into glucose after being absorbed by the intestines, and released into the blood, and may also synthesize glycogen and triglycerides. The ingested carbohydrates will be used during the absorption period, or synthesized glycogen or fat.
The protein is absorbed in the form of amino acids and short peptides, used as energy in the liver, or synthesized into proteins in other tissues. Enzymes that maintain the human body and proteins that grow muscles are all these synthetic proteins. During the absorption period, only a few of the proteins we eat will be used by the liver as energy, and most of them will synthesize proteins needed by the body for maintenance and growth. Fat is processed into Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the liver in the form of triglycerides, or combined into fat in fat cells.
How do cells use blood sugar?
The sugars eaten are mainly absorbed in the form of glucose, so blood sugar rises. But under normal conditions, insulin allows blood sugar to enter cells to be used, or synthesized glycogen storage in liver and muscle cells, or synthesized fat storage in fat cells. Whether it is used or stored in a different form, the blood sugar concentration that increases when eating is lowered. Diabetes patients are because of insulin resistance or insufficient secretion, so that the cells can not convert or consume blood sugar, so that blood sugar can not fall easily.
Insulin is an endocrine hormone that promotes use and synthesis. The purpose is to allow various kinds of energy to be used or to be synthesized and stored in another form.
Usually after the food is absorbed until the next time you eat, it is the so-called late absorption stage. During this period, the nutrients in the blood have almost been absorbed, but the body still has to continue to operate, so it is necessary to start to pay for it. The goal of metabolism in the late absorption phase is to maintain blood glucose concentration. The blood sugar is too low to allow the body to function. Therefore, during the period when blood sugar cannot be obtained from food, blood sugar will be obtained by breaking down glycogen and gluconeogenesis.
The brain is responsible for all information transmission except for spinal reflexes, and it requires a lot of energy to maintain efficient operation. Although the brain weighs only 2% of the human body, it requires 20% of the glucose that the human body consumes throughout the day.
When the blood sugar is too low, the human body will be unconscious or even die, but the brain cannot store glucose and cannot produce it. The human endocrine system maintains the blood glucose concentration by breaking down the glycogen in the liver. In addition, the liver can also use the lactic acid, pyruvate, amino acid, glycerol, etc. metabolized by muscles after exercise to produce glucose, which is the so-called sugar. Qualitative new life. In summary, the carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc. in the body have the opportunity to be used by the liver to synthesize glucose.
Without food, the liver can synthesize about 180 grams of glucose per day, providing 720 calories to the brain. If you don’t eat for too long, the kidneys will also perform glycogen regeneration, but the efficiency is slightly better than that of the liver. Worse. The human body needs more than 1,500 to 2,000 calories a day, so in addition to the regeneration of glycogen, the lipolysis function allows fat to be released in the form of fatty acids, which is directly used as energy by ordinary cells, or in The liver is converted into ketone bodies for use by body tissues or brain.
What happens if I eat a ketogenic diet or a low-sugar diet?
The low-sugar diet method limits the daily sugar intake to 50-150 grams, while the ketogenic diet is limited to 50 grams a day, basically almost no sugar food. If you compare the ratio of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, ketogenic diet requires 5% carbohydrates, protein 15%-20%, and fat 75%-80%. With such a very low intake of sugars, human blood sugar cannot basically be taken directly from the diet. It needs to be regenerated through glycogen, and other energy needs to break down fat to produce fatty acids or ketones. In this situation, blood sugar relies on gluconeogenesis to support, so the value will be low. As for the increase in fat burning, the ketogenic dieter will have a good fat loss effect in the early stage. In addition to objective blood glucose and weight, diabetes treatment mainly hopes to reduce the risk of long-term complications, such as retinopathy, stroke, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and so on.
Risks of ketogenic diet and low-carb diet
In related studies, low-sugar diet can reduce body weight, cardiovascular and blood sugar in a short time. Current studies have also pointed out that refined sugar and starch are bad sugars (sources of carbohydrates), and no matter what kind of diet you should avoid the intake of these foods. While patients with type 1 diabetes have not yet proven that low-sugar diets can control the disease, developing adolescents have evidence that low-sugar diets affect development. At present, there are more researches on the use of ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy. The more common conditions of epilepsy patients who use ketogenic diet for a long time are as follows:
- Gastrointestinal discomfort: diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux.
- Dyslipidemia: Compared with dyslipidemia, there are fewer severe hypercholesterolemia, high triacids and high fats.
- Hypoglycemia: In the initial stage of treatment, the incidence of hypoglycemia is 25%, especially in children under 2 years old. The blood glucose self-regulation of adults with diabetes is also worse than that of normal adults.
- Abnormal biochemical tests: hyperuricemia, hypoproteinemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyponatremia are common.
- Growth retardation: Most children who eat a ketogenic diet will produce it, so developing children should avoid low-sugar or ketogenic diets.
- Kidney stones: Up to 7% of children have this condition, but adequate water supplements can reduce this risk.
- Selenium deficiency: Selenium is an essential mineral for the human body. Up to 20% of children on a ketogenic diet have this condition, and the most serious may cause myocardial disease and death.
If normal people use a ketogenic diet, the synthesis of ketone bodies will be higher than that of ordinary people. Although too many ketone bodies are accumulated and the probability of ketoacidosis is low, it is still necessary to pay attention to this risk. The ketogenic diet is a more extreme diet, with almost no carbohydrate intake. Different foods contain different nutrients. If a large group of foods are directly excluded, it will easily become nutritionally unbalanced. At present, doctors will actively recommend a ketogenic diet mainly for children with epilepsy, because it is difficult to control epilepsy with drugs alone, so doctors and nutritionists will allow patients to take a ketogenic diet under close monitoring.
Low-sugar diet and ketogenic diet can indeed control diabetes, but it needs to be assessed according to individual conditions. In addition to diet, exercise, lifestyle habits, medication, etc. should also be combined. Few doctors will actively recommend a ketogenic diet. After all, a low-sugar diet or a Mediterranean diet, or a balanced diet based on the condition, are also safer for diabetes. At present, Dr. You Nengjun, who treats the most diabetic patients in the country, once said that with all extreme dietary methods, the most difficult thing is that almost all of them regain weight after resuming eating. Different diets need to pay attention to being safe, long-term, nutritionally balanced, and self-affordable.
If you are a person who has considered using a low-sugar diet or a ketogenic diet, you can use this article to understand the mechanism of body operation and assess possible risks. If you want to implement it, you must consult and discuss with professional medical staff so that you will not damage your body. No matter what kind of diet therapy, you must first carefully understand the knowledge and operation mechanism inside, which is the safest and most guaranteed!