Anorexia Dietary salt and sodium
A healthy diet can help prevent long-term (chronic) diseases such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. It can help reduce your risk of developing some cancers and keep you healthy. This leaflet explains the principles of a healthy diet. This is general advice for most people. The advice may be different for certain groups of individuals, including pregnant women, specific health problems or special dietary needs.
Your body needs energy to function normally and to keep you alive. You get this energy from the nutrients in the food you eat – mostly carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Minerals and vitamins are other nutrients that are also important in your diet to keep your body healthy.
Finding the right balance between these different nutrients is important to achieve the maximum health benefits. (See below) A balanced diet usually consists of food from each of the following food groups:
Starchy foods such as bread, rice, potatoes, pasta etc.
Fruits and vegetables.
Milk and dairy foods.
These include meat, fish, eggs and other non-dairy sources of protein (nuts, tofu, beans, pulses, etc.).
Fatty and sweet foods are the fifth food group you eat. However, what you want to eat should be made from small amounts of fatty and sweet foods.
In addition to being on top, plenty of fiber and water in your diet is also important for your health.
What are the benefits of a healthy diet?
A healthy diet can help prevent some serious diseases such as heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. This can help reduce your risk of developing some cancers. If you get sick, eating healthy foods can help you recover faster. Also, one of the main ways to lose weight is to eat a healthy diet. If you are overweight or obese, eating a healthy diet can help you lose weight.
What makes a healthy diet?
As a general rule, vegetables, fruits and starchy foods should provide you with plenty of food. The rest of your diet should be made up of milk and dairy foods and protein foods. As mentioned above, you should limit the amount of foods and drinks that are high in fat or sugar. The diet guidelines for reducing the risk of heart disease are as follows:
Saturated fat intake of more than 10% of total fat intake (especially in lean meats and low-fat dairy products):
Replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats where possible.
Eat at least five portions per week of fruits and vegetables (new research suggests that we aim for seven portions per day).
Eat at least two fish (especially oily fish) every week.
Consider eating whole grains and nuts regularly. Put less salt in your diet at less than 6 grams per day.
Consuming less than 14 units per week for men and 14 units less per week for women.
Avoid or reduce your diet:
Processed meats or commercially produced foods (including ‘ready meals’) that are high in salt and trans fatty acids. Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and processed cereals.
Sugar is a sweet drink
High-calorie but nutritious poor foods, such as sweets, cakes and chris.
Below, the principle of a healthy diet is explained. This is general advice for most people. This advice does not apply to you if you have a specific health problem or a specific dietary requirement. If in doubt, you should check with your doctor. Pregnant women can also make some changes to make their diet.
Most of the energy (calories) we eat comes from carbohydrates. These are divided into two types of carbohydrates:
Complex carbohydrates – usually starchy foods such as bread, pasta, rice and potatoes.
Easy Carbohydrates – Sweet Sweet Food.
There is a lot written about how many carbohydrates we should make in our diet but most guidelines recommend about one third. It should be a mostly starchy carbohydrate, especially high-fiber alternatives such as whole ankle bread, plate cereal and brown rice.
The glycemic index of food is the rate at which blood sugar levels rise after eating. If a food has a low glycemic index, it is processed by the body which can mean problems like diabetes and obesity.
High-fiber carbohydrates such as wholegrain cereals and whole metal breads, white breads, snack foods and confectionery drinks have lower glycemic index than more refined starches. This means that they are a healthy alternative to fiber.
Eat lots of fruits and vegetables
New research shows that eating at least seven portions of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of many diseases, such as stroke, heart disease and some cancers. Ideally your diet should be more vegetables than fruits.
There are many fibers that help keep your heart healthy. Problems such as constipation and diverticular diseases are less likely to develop. There are lots of vitamins and minerals, which you need to keep healthy.
Naturally low in fat. Helps you feel full after meals but low in calories. An average portion of vegetables can be a cellphone, or about 80 grams. Otherwise, one portion of the fruit or vegetable is roughly equivalent to the following:
A large piece of fruit such as an apple, pear, banana, orange, or a large piece of watermelon or pineapple.
Plum, kiwi, satsuma, clematin etc. are two small fruits.
One cup (or a handful) of small cups such as grapes, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, etc.
Two large tablespoons of fruit salad, stew or egg fruit natural juice.
One tablespoon of dried fruit.
One glass of fresh fruit juice (150 ml).
About three heaped tablespoons of any vegetable.
A dessert bowl of salad.
Here are some tips on how to grow fruits and vegetables in your diet:
Try some different types that you haven’t tried before. A variety of tastes and textures can be wonderful. Fridge, canned and dried all species.
Try adding chopped bananas, apples, or other fruits from the breakfast cereal.
Aim to include at least two different vegetables with most staple foods. Not too boiling vegetables. Steaming, stir-frying, or light boiling is good for maintaining nutrition.
Try to eat a small glass of fruit or fruit juice with each meal.
Try new recipes which include fruit. For example, some curries or stews contain dried dates. There are fruit-based puddings. Fruits with compounds are a common favorite.
Consider cherry tomatoes, carrot sticks, dried corn, or other fruits as part of a packed lunch.
Fruit is great for breakfast. Encourage children to spoil with fruit rather than sweets.
Eat lots of fiber
There are two types of dietary fiber:
Soluble fiber, which is found in watermelons, beans, beans and many fruits and vegetables, dissolves in water to form gel-like components. It enhances the feeling of fullness and can lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels.
Soluble fiber is found mostly in whole grains and also in fruit and vegetable skins. It is not digestible by the body but forms in the intestines in large quantities, which usually helps to move the intestines.
Starchy foods and fruits and vegetables contain the most fiber. So the above tips on starchy foods and fruits and vegetables will also increase fiber. If you switch to whole-grain rice and pasta, and whole bread, it can significantly increase your fiber intake. Pulses like peppers and beans are also full of fiber.
Eating a high-fiber diet can make you feel full for a long time, it can help you if you try to see your weight. Drink plenty of fluids (at least 6-8 cups of fluids a day) when you eat a high-fiber diet.
Eat enough milk and dairy foods
Milk and other dairy foods, such as cheese and yogurt, are important for your diet because they provide the calcium needed for healthy teeth and bones. They can be a source of protein and provide other vitamins and minerals that are important for your health. Calcium-rich soy milk and beef also come under ‘milk and dairy foods’. However, other foods like butter and cream are not considered dairy foods here because they are high in fat, so they come across a group of fatty foods.
You need three rows per day from this food group to make sure your diet has enough calcium. One is served:
200 ml of milk.
A small (150 g) yogurt yogurt.
Serve a 30g cheese (about the size of a matchbox).
Just as the fat content of dairy foods may vary, so is possible where low-fat alternatives such as skimmed or semi-skimmed milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt are possible.
Non-dairy sources of calcium include green leafy vegetables, canned fish (especially if bones are included), dried figs, nuts, oranges, sesame seeds, and some types of beans.
Non-dairy calcium needs to be eaten with a source of vitamin D, as it is needed by the body to absorb calcium. Vitamin D is found in eggs, fish and mushrooms, but most of them are made in the sun.
Some foods are fortified with calcium, such as breakfast cereals, some soy drinks and tofu. This may already include the addition of vitamin D.
Eat other protein foods in moderation
Other protein-containing foods include meat, fish, eggs and protein plant sources. Plant sources of protein include nuts, seeds, tofu, red kidney beans and canned beans, and pulses such as yogurt and chicken.
You need a certain amount of protein to keep you healthy. Protein is important for strength and growth and repair of your body. Most high protein foods, including these vitamins and vitamin D, can be a source of iron and vitamins. However, most people eat more protein than they need. Be careful, some meats are high in fat. Choose poultry as chicken, or lean meats. Also, be careful, many meat-based recipes contain high levels of creamy or fatty sauces in calories. Instead of frying eggs, steam or wrap them. One portion of beans or lentils such as chicken or pepper three tablespoons of broth.
There is some evidence that eating oily fish helps protect against heart disease. Oily fish include herring, sardines, mackerel, salmon, fresh tuna (not tinned), copper, piled, trout, whitebite, anchovy and swordfish. It is thought that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil help reduce ‘arterial rupture’ (atheroma build up) which causes angina and heart attack. Aim to eat at least two portions of fish each week, one of which should be oily.
Vegetarian sources of protein do not provide the right balance of amino acids (protein building blocks) for the body until they are combined with each other. So those who do not eat fish, meat or eggs should make sure that their diet includes the following two:
Legumes (for example, beans, torches).
Examples of protein-balanced diets are:
Baked beans on toast.
Dhal and rice or chapatti.
Baked potatoes with baked beans and cheese.
A bowl of cereal with milk.
Red meat and processed meat
Red meat mainly refers to beef, veal, pork and lamb. Processed meat refers to meat that has been processed to improve flavor or help preserve meat. Examples of processed meats are ham and sausage, as well as canned meats and meat-based ready meals and sauces.
In the case of red meat, there is some evidence that eating red meat increases the risk of bowel cancer (colorectal cancer). It also increases the potential risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer. However, the evidence is limited and not specific.
Processed meat has a lot of strong evidence that it increases the risk of bowel cancer. Eating processed meats can also increase the risk of stomach cancer. Processed meat feeding has been shown to increase the risk of stroke, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Health risks from eating processed meat increase with the increased amount of processed meat you eat.
For a long time, obesity and other health problems have been blamed on the amount of fat we can eat. This is because fat contains about twice as many calories as carbohydrates or protein per gram. However, recent studies have shown that it is more complex than pictures. This suggests that carbohydrates play a larger role in weight gain than we previously thought.
Also, advice on what kind of fat is better to eat has been discussed. Previously it was thought that saturated fats (mostly from animal sources such as meat and butter) were more dangerous to health than polyunsaturated fats. Most fats are usually found in vegetable oils. Recent research does not support this view.
If you want to lose weight, it is probably a good idea to eat less fat.
Tips to reduce fat in your diet include the following:
Whenever possible, do not fry food. Gill, bake, poach, barbecue or swollen food is good. If you don’t fry, use unsaturated oil. Drain off the food before eating.
Choose thin slices of meat and no extra fat cuts.
Avoid adding unnecessary fats to the diet. For example, use a low fat spread, spread bread with less butter or margarine, measure small portions of oil for cooking, and so on.
Look for the fat hidden in pastries, chocolates, cakes and biscuits.
Drink less fat milk, cheese, jasmine and other dairy foods than full fat varieties.
Avoid creams. Use low-fat salad cream, or low-fat yogurt as a cream alternative.
See a separate leaflet called The Low-Fat Diet Sheet for more details.
Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) are unsaturated fatty acids. Trans fat increases the risk of heart disease. They increase LDL-cholesterol and decrease HDL-cholesterol. See separate leaflets on cholesterol for more information.
Trans fatty acids occur in small amounts in a wide range of natural amounts such as milk, beef and lamb. However, most of the trans fatty acids in the diet are produced during vegetable oil processing. Trans fats are found in hard margins and in some baking products (for example, biscuits, pastries and cakes), fried foods and other processed foods. Partly labeled foods containing hydrogenated oils or fats that contain trans fatty acids. When purchasing fatty foods, it is healthy to buy labeled ones with high content of mono-dissatisfaction or multiculturalism.
Studies have shown that trans fatty acids produced during the processing of vegetable oils are far more harmful to health than natural trans fatty acids (for example, milk, beef and lamb). You can reduce your intake of trans fats by avoiding or reducing the amount of fried foods, high-fat foods and high-fat foods.
Much less than eating trans fats 20-30 years ago in the UK. However, as part of a healthy diet, you should aim to keep both the amount of synthetic fat and trans fat in the minimum.
A large review of research published in 2015 found that eating saturated fats increases the risk of premature death, heart disease, stroke or type 2 diabetes. However, there are still concerns that synthetic fats increase cholesterol and are also bad for your health. Trans fats were associated with an increased risk of premature death, coronary heart disease and stroke. The review recommended that the intake of both synthetic fats and trans fats should be kept to a minimum.
There are not too many sweet foods and drinks
Sugary foods and drinks are high in calories and too much can lead to weight gain. It’s not just the amount of sugar that is bad. Even eating small amounts of sugary foods (sweets, etc.) is often bad for teeth. Tips include:
Try adding tea, coffee and breakfast cereal sugar. Your taste for sweets often changes over time. Use artificial sweeteners only if needed.
Recipes reduce any type of recipe. Use fruit as an alternative to add sweetness to recipes. Try sugar free drinks. Give children water or milk as their main drink. If you eat chocolate or sweets, try to keep the amount low.
Don’t eat too much salt
Excessive salt increases your risk of developing high blood pressure. The guidelines recommend that we should not have more than 6 grams of salt per day. (Most people in the UK now have more than that.) If you use a lot of salt, try to gradually reduce your amount. Your taste for salt will eventually change. Tips on how to reduce salt include:
Use herbs and spices instead of salt in delicious foods.
Limit the amount of salt used in cooking and do not add salt to table food. Choose foods labeled ‘no added salt’.
As soon as possible, avoid processed foods, salt-rich sauces, takeaways and packet soups that are high in salt.
Don’t forget the part size
You can eat very healthy foods but you still have to keep an eye on your portion sizes because if they are too big, you will still gain weight. Deliberately try to take small portions while eating. You don’t think your plate is empty. Change the plates in your cupboard (which may be larger) to your medium sized plates. This way you will naturally serve smaller portions. Fill with fruits and vegetables. Ask for a small portion when eating or ordering a takeaway.